Ecosystems ravaged by climate change tend to reward to pests and invasive species. Stinging jellyfish thrive in warm, acidic seas. Rats multiply in extreme summer heat and frigid, urban winters. Disease-carrying mosquitoes, including the species that carries Zika virus, find homes farther and farther to the north.
The same goes for Southern pine beetles, an invasive species that burrows into the trunks of conifers and lays eggs. For nearly two decades, the insects ― native to the southeastern United States ― have ravaged woodlands in New Jersey and New York. By 2020, they could threaten forests as far north as Canada, according to a study released Monday by researchers at Columbia University.
“The coldest temperature of the year, which really sets that boundary for whether the species can survive or not, has been warming rapidly in the eastern United States,” Radley Horton, a co-author of the paper, told HuffPost. “Climate models generally project for the future, as well, that those really cold temperatures are going to warm a lot.”
By 2050, according to the study, 78 percent of the 48,000 square miles of pitch pine forests from southern Maine to eastern Ohio could become suitable habitats for the beetles. By 2060, that area could stretch to Wisconsin. By 2080, 71 percent of red pines and 48 percent of jack pines, species of tree that cover 270,000 square miles from the northeastern U.S. to huge swaths of southern Canada, could be at risk.
The insects first showed up in New Jersey in 2001, and have since spread to Connecticut and New York, particularly Long Island. New York’s Department of Environmental Conservation has felled more than 15,000 trees in Long Island’s Pine Barrens to try to contain the beetles.
The beetles infestations cost and estimated $100 million in timber losses from 1990 to 2004 alone, according to the U.S. Forest Service.
If infestations are discovered in individual trees on private property, arborists can treat the pines using chemical injections to kill off the beetles.
“If you catch it in time, you can do micro injections, but the problem is you usually catch them when it’s too late, and the only thing you can do is cut the tree down,” Dana Murch, an arborist at Howard’s Tree Service on Long Island, told HuffPost. “You can’t get there too late.”